We have considered the background of this paper from the view-points of individual learner, individual teacher and organizations. Now, let us discuss the possibilities of effective learning from different dimensions such as size of learner group, distance between learner and teacher.

Obviously teaching to or learning by large groups located at different places will be more effective for rapid and wide spread of knowledge.

Teaching to larger groups located at different places
There are various modes of teaching to larger groups, which include books, postal mail courses; conferences in large size auditoriums; text-based e-learning through Internet & e-mail; multimedia CDs; video conferencing and broadcasting of video lessons through Television. Though these modes of teaching can have wide reach to student community, they lack freedom of teaching and freedom of learning

Proposed model of teaching and learning: Video-based e-learning
Here, what we suggest is a model of e-learning which is video-based. This Video-based e-learning can be delivered to students by Internet, email or CD media. Content of this Video-based e-learning can be developed easily by computer literate teachers using a computer with presentation software and screen capturing software. No need for costly video cameras and Studio equipment to capture and broadcast video. A brief description of the process of developing content for Video-based learning is given elsewhere in this paper.

In this connection, we would like to highlight the research findings of Richard Mayer, Cognitive Psychologist from Carnegie Mellon University regarding effectiveness of voice narrated text animation on user screen. His findings are based on his ten-year research and the focus of his findings is that dual encoding and effective learning is possible if voice narration is provided to the text & graphic animation on the screen. For readers who are interested to read about Richard Mayer and his research, we give the following URL in Internet:

This concept of video-based learning has advantage over traditional text-based learning in as much as the student can see and hear simultaneously and assimilate easily what was told and shown on the screen. Further, student can stop and review what was taught. Human thought process requires taking pauses to understand, review & assimilate what was taught. Continuous streaming of knowledge into the mind of student will be less effective for learning.

Taking a step further, we can call the content of video learning as Video Book. Similar to Text Book, we can develop Video Books on various topics / subjects of knowledge. Since these Video Books are in electronic form, they can be multiplied easily and can be delivered to any part of the world though Internet or Television.
The following diagram shows the evolution of Video Book from printed book.

Need for Video Books:
Now, the demand for web-based e-learning is increasing and students across the world are joining some or other e-learning courses over Internet. The content of the most of these e-learning courses are text-based and are difficult to understand by average students. In Video-Book, since the animated text appearing on the screen will be explained by voice narration, it makes the life of student easy to understand the topic. This feature of text animation with voice narration is already implemented in Multimedia CDs, but the advantage in Video-Book is that the student can view the videos by stopping, reviewing and repeating whenever & whatever he wants. Video Books will be very handy for students who use iPods, laptop computers and can be copied to pen drives for viewing in home PC. For more explanation about Video Books, readers can go to URL:

Having stated the advantages and need for Video Books, we need to find out ways of production of Video Books in every topic / branch / subject of knowledge so that students and teachers at large can get benefit of them.

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